虽然“少吃垃圾食品”是许多人常常挂在嘴边的话,但是现代人的工作节奏快,生活越来越便捷,精加工食品(ultra-processed foods)往往是许多人的选择。这些食物经过多种物理、化学或生物过程加工,使得其保存稳定、便捷、美味可口且价格适宜。然而,近期发表在著名医学杂志《BMJ》上的研究称,过多地食用这类食物会提高乳腺癌的患病风险。


受试者:2009-2017年间,共有104 980名18岁以上(中位年龄42.8岁)来自法国NutriNet-Santé队列的受试者参与了本项研究。研究人员记录了这些受试者每日24小时摄入的食物,包括了3300中食物。这些食物按照NOVA分类进行食物加工程度的分级。

研究结果:精加工食品的摄入提高总体患癌风险(n=2228,精加工食物摄入增加10%时的HR 1.12(95% CI 1.06 to 1.18),P=0.02)以及乳腺癌风险(n=739,HR 1.11(95% CI 1.02 to 1.22),P=0.02)。在经过许多饮食营养质量指标的校正后(脂肪、钠盐和碳水化合物摄入以及基于主要成分分析的西方模式),这些结果依然具有统计学显著性。



To assess the prospective associations between consumption of ultra-processed food and risk of cancer.

Setting and participants 

104 980 participants aged at least 18 years (median age 42.8 years) from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-17). Dietary intakes were collected using repeated 24 hour dietary records, designed to register participants’ usual consumption for 3300 different food items. These were categorised according to their degree of processing by the NOVA classification.


Ultra-processed food intake was associated with higher overall cancer risk (n=2228 cases; hazard ratio for a 10% increment in the proportion of ultra-processed food in the diet 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.18); P for trend<0.001) and breast cancer risk (n=739 cases; hazard ratio 1.11 (1.02 to 1.22); P for trend=0.02). These results remained statistically significant after adjustment for several markers of the nutritional quality of the diet (lipid, sodium, and carbohydrate intakes and/or a Western pattern derived by principal component analysis).


In this large prospective study, a 10% increase in the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the diet was associated with a significant increase of greater than 10% in risks of overall and breast cancer. Further studies are needed to better understand the relative effect of the various dimensions of processing (nutritional composition, food additives, contact materials, and neoformed contaminants) in these associations.


Reference: Consumption of ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort

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